Human trafficking: a look at gender

By Jorge Franco

The issue of human trafficking is a very heavy subject. It is an issue that many countries around the world have trouble with. For the victims, it is an extremely traumatic experience, whether they are laborers or sex workers.


However, there is a very strong narrative at play when the issue of human trafficking is brought up. It is the idea that women are the primary victims of trafficking. Now, that is not to say that women do not make up a good percentage of the victims. In fact, according to the International Labor Organization (2012), around 98% of sex-trafficking victims are women. However, when looking at labor exploitation, around 60% of the victims are men. Overall, trafficked people are comprised of 55% women and 45% men.

Why is this topic presented from the perspective that women suffer more? Ashley Greve, a member of the Human Trafficking Center, assigns some of the blame to the mainstream media. She states that it is “easier to believe that only the ‘weaker sex’ is victimized” (2014). Now, it can be argued that women have historically been a part of the lower social class compared to men, meaning that they did not have the same social value or economic status. In that case, it would be efficient to create a narrative where women are the primary victims of human trafficking in order to assure that the public is aware of what they’re going through. However, while such a view has a stronger effect on the public to search for those victims, it has an opposite effect on those that don’t fit the media’s narrative. As citizens are keeping a watchful eye on Aurora for female prostitutes, they’re ignoring the male prostitute standing right next to them. And it’s not just the general public that has that bias. Erin Drum, one of the directors for Unbound Seattle, stated that “many service providers or law enforcement aren’t looking for non-female victims” (personal communication, August 21, 2017). This means that unless male victims can make people aware of their situation, which is already difficult enough given their position, they will probably go unnoticed.

Unfortunately, there are many members of the public who do not contemplate the idea of challenging the current narrative. That is because they do not think that there is anything that needs to be challenged. In Amusing Ourselves to Death, Neil Postman explains this phenomenon as the result of TV becoming a myth, which Robert Barthes defines as “a way of understanding the world that is not problematic, that we are not fully conscious of, that seems, in a word, natural” (p. 79). The essential idea is that due to the frequent use of the TV since its implementation in society, everything about the TV is now passed off as common knowledge. This not only includes the physical machinations of the TV itself, but also the content that it produces. As a result, when the media pushes a certain narrative, that narrative is simply accepted as fact. In addition, with the rise of social media, the support of the narrative can now reach a wider audience in a shorter amount of time. If the media pushes the claim that women are the primary victims of human trafficking, then the public will easily take that information at face value, because they will assume it to be common sense.

As mentioned earlier, in cases such as this, victims that don’t fit the media’s narrative end up suffering while their counterparts receive more attention. In some cases, this can lead to the public outright refusing to help them. A prominent example of this would be the neighbors of Chris and Anna Smith. The Smiths are a couple who started work on The Anchor House, a shelter for sex-trafficked boys, in North Carolina in 2014. The shelter was created to help male victims rebuild their lives after surviving such a horrid ordeal. However, when the neighbors caught wind of what the Smiths were doing, they became worried that the Smiths would be taking in criminals. In fact, the neighbors were so anxious that they put up signs along Greene County saying that there was no Anchor House there, and even had “the county board of commissioners [pass] a resolution accusing the Smiths of lying” (Invisible Boys: Inside the Push to Help Unseen Victims of the Sex Trade). Because there is no mainstream narrative that presents these boys as victims, the neighbors have a difficult time treating them as such. This treatment then compounds the issue of male trafficking, as guys are disparaged from seeking help under the belief that they aren’t wanted. In turn, human traffickers are more likely to kidnap men due to the social narrative not putting an emphasis on male victims, and the cycle continues.

So what is the appropriate response to this issue? Ronald Takaki presents a possible solution in A Different Mirror. He suggests the idea of “unlearning” the past that we’ve been taught in order to substitute a more accurate history (p. 436). Obviously, while this implies introducing the counter-narratives, this does not mean to substitute them as the new master narrative; doing so would have the same outcome as before. What it means is to present all narratives. To do so will allow the public to have a clearer idea of the situation, and prevents victims from going unnoticed.


Postman, Neil (1986). The Peek-a-Boo World. Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business (pg. 64-80). New York: Penguin Books.

Takaki, Ronald (2008). We Will All Be Minorities. (2nd Ed.), A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America (pg. 434-439). New York: Bay Back Books.

Greve, Ashley. (2014, Sept. 18). Human trafficking: What about the men and boys? [Web log]. Retrieved from

  and  (2016, Jan. 26). Invisible Boys: Inside the Push to Help Unseen Victims of the Sex Trade. NBC News. Retrieved from

International Labour Organization. (2012). [Bar graph]. Retrieved from–it/index.htm


Race and Human Trafficking

by Aly Swasey

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The reality of race and human trafficking is a mirror-like representation of history. People of color inherently targeted and sold into slavery, because of their race. The social construct of race is defined as “any one of the groups that human beings can be divided into based on shared or distinctive physical traits”. To look at it fundamentally and from recollection, it is admissible to blame history and its teachings for today’s continued slavery. Historically the subject of race began and still continues with the master narrative [pre-existent sociocultural forms of interpretation]; that specifically white men hold. The narrative being, teachings passed down over the years that white is equivalent to superiority. These teachings have led to this same thought process of racism and seeing people of color as less-than, still today in 2017. “Jefferson’s ownership of lands and slaves made him one of the wealthiest men in Virginia. Yet he continued to expand his slaveholdings. In 1805, he informed John Jordan that he was “endeavoring to purchase young and able negro men.” In a letter to his manager regarding a “breeding woman”, Jefferson referred the “loss of 5 little ones in 4 years” and complained that the overseers had not permitted the slave women to devote as much time as was necessary to care for their children.” (Takaki, pg. 62).  Jefferson (through narrative history) is painted in an image that is proud and honorable; when at the same time, he was one of the biggest slave owners and traders. By 1822, Jefferson owned 267 slaves, and was known for violently forcing them into labor. The video “Thomas Jefferson’s Roll as a Slave Owner Explored” , VOA news tries to uncover why it is that Jefferson being one of the most well-loved men and principle author of the Declaration, yet owned hundreds of slaves. This is one of the primary examples of the [white] master narrative painting even slave owners to be honorable men, acknowledging that it is permissible to behave towards people of color with a discriminative bias. Since slavery distributes profit to buyers and sellers, the work of victims is primary and inexcusably mandatory in slave work. Human trafficking is truthfully current day slavery, with the deliberate intention to traffic people of color.


In today’s culture, the media takes on the topic of race and the issue of human trafficking, as it is continually shaped and carried by the narrative and the intertextuality [shaping of text influenced by another]. Since today’s culture continually oppresses minorities in various ways. In response to this, traffickers view people of color as vulnerable or easily targeted. Almost anytime written works are published and consumed it involves a white person, writing about a white person; but if it so happens to be a person of color, it is usually written in a negative image. “The point I am leading to by this and the previous examples is that the concept of truth is intimately linked to the biases of forms of expression. Truth does not, and never has, come unadorned. It must appear in its proper clothing or it is not acknowledged, which is a way of saying that the “truth” is a kind of cultural prejudice.” (Postman, pg.22). There is a distinct bias against people of color, especially when it comes to human trafficking. When speaking with our community partner’s [Unbound Seattle] representative, she explained that a high number of the victims they work with are people of color, and that there are definitely ties between trafficking and race. In the film “Sold” a young a Nepalese girl is coerced into sex trafficking in India, after being told she could take a job offer. In many cases race/ethnic background, unfortunately can play a part in targeting. Vulnerability factors such as; illegal documentation, location, at-risk-youth, age etc. are seen as prime targets when it comes to trafficking.




One thing I did find to be both unique and helpful was that The National Human Trafficking Hotline and their resources. One of the major things they have done to help all victims, is create help hotlines, pamphlets, apps/widgets, in various languages. A big part of race and trafficking is providing the necessary tools to all victims, of all ethnicities. The videos to this link here provide a good understanding of just how badly human trafficking awareness is needed, and how to watch for the signs.


Works Cited:

cnn. (2017). human trafficking: the new american slavery.

Coorlim, L. (2017, March 14). Human Trafficking: The new American slavery. Retrieved from

Health and Human Rights Journal. (2013, December 6). How social determinants affects human trafficking.

Homeland Security . (n.d.). Sex Trafficking Awareness Videos. Sex Trafficking Awareness Videos. USA.

Human Trafficking Awareness Pamphlet. (n.d.).

Human Trafficking Chart. (n.d.).

Jeffery D. Brown, J. K. (Writer), & Brown, J. D. (Director). (2016). Sold [Motion Picture]. USA.

news, V. (Director). (2012). Thomas Jefferson’s Roll as a Slave Owner Explored [Motion Picture]. USA.

news, V. (Director). (n.d.). Thomas Jefferson’s Roll as a Slave Owner Explored [Motion Picture]. USA.

Postman, N. (n.d.). Amusing Ourselves To Death. (2014, June 22). Understanding Human Trafficking.

Takaki, R. (n.d.). A Different Mirror.

Human Trafficking and Mass Communication

Muhammad Farooq


Human Trafficking is one of the biggest problems which rivals drug trafficking and gun trafficking. Not just domestically in the United State but also abroad in the international theater. Given this problem how many people know about Human trafficking and what factors play a role in media coverage of it? How do people in this day and age communicate with traffickers and purchase a person as property? How does the internet play a role in Human trafficking as one of the most pro-efficient way to get information out into the world?

Image result for human trafficking media coverage result for human trafficking media coverage

Human trafficking is a major problem, a problem that has gotten the attention of the world. The matter which got the attention of the United Nation (UN) crime fighting office with 2.4 million people being trafficked globally and of those 2.4 million 80 percent are sexually exploited. With so many people being exploited there has been attention gathered to this subject through the media. The roles media plays are both good and bad. Meaning it helps bring light on the issue and at the same time it helps out in the recruiting process. The light that media shines on Human Trafficking is through the use of newspapers, television news stories, and social media/ the Internet. At the same time, social media and the internet are also being used to recruit new people to become tools of profit or ways to portray their merchandise, people the traffickers recruited, and according to Unbound Seattle, a group based in Seattle which is part of an international network of anti-trafficking organization, said in a reply to a question about the internet’s role and how it benefits the traffickers, they replied: recruitment happens online and so does selling. also in king county alone, there are over 200 websites to purchasing of sex. looking at media on another note Postman, in Amusing Ourselves To Death, presents a detail about television media, “television offers viewers a variety of subject matter, requires minimal skills to comprehend it, and is largely aimed at emotional gratification (86).(Postman,2005)” Taking what Postman said and applying it to the subject of Human Trafficking, it implies that this is one of the best things about television media which benefits the viewer who will have had a complex matter like Human Trafficking simplified down to the point where the viewer can easily digest the information that was presented on the subject at a comfortable pace. Both aspects, of recruiting people and making people aware of and understand Human Trafficking, are ones that are the biggest representation of the positive and negative roles media plays in this subject matter, but what factors drive these roles to be present?

Many factors push for coverage and action towards Human Trafficking. When looking at the factors that cause media outlets to cover Human Trafficking, they range from foreign investment to political figures speaking to domestic activism in local communities and all of which receive national attention through media outlets. As getting the attention of the people is one of the most effective ways of bringing attention to the problem, and step one to any problem’s solution brings it up and having people talk about. One of the ways to make people who are in denial about a problem is by protesting. Protesting is a right given to the people, in the United States, by the Bill of Right which is a compilation of 10 rights given to all of the people and is the beginning of the Constitution, the supreme law of the land, and

Image result for human trafficking media protest coverage

through doing so gives people knowledge along with awareness about the problem also one of the most important things in the twenty-first century is what the media covering. It is important because of the power it holds in society today and Postman describes this as the “image-center culture”(Postman, 2005). Conveying the power of of media coverage Postman says to “think of Richard Nixon or Jimmy Carter or Billy Graham, or even Albert Einstein, and what comes to your mind…most likely a face on a television screen…of words, almost nothing will come to mind…(61)”(Postman, 2005). This shows some of histories most memorable persons are known for their actions because of the media coverage within the “image-center culture,” and if we look at protests of the past few year they all started because there was a problem and their was not much coverage, not enough people talking about the problem, tensions fueled by microaggressions which, are subtle or unintentional discrimination against members of a marginalized group but mainly are associated with race which according to the Stanford encyclopedia is “Genealogical investigation should identify each race’s geographic origin,” implode because of race tensions. And because people relentlessly took to the streets in protest. After a while television new outlets had caught onto them which led to people to become attracted to the problem and talk about it, which shows the just how effective media coverage of protesting is in efforts to bring attention to a problem that has been dusted under the rug. In Cross-National Coverage of Human Trafficking A Community Structure Approach the authors said that”consistently, Mcleod and Hertog (1999) confirmed that the larger protest group gain more attention and favorable coverage than smaller groups.(Alexandre, Sha, Pollock, Baier, & Jhonson, 2014)” this adds to the point protesting is one of the best ways to get attention onto a problem. Also while Asking a representative from unbound Seattle, Erin, on how to spread word and stop/ prevent Human trafficking Erin replied: “demand reduction,” and the best way to demand something is to rile up support and protest. Another way to address Human trafficking in such a way that it grabs hold of the maximum attention is to have it addressed explicitly by a person in a position of power like the president of the United States. Like when Takaki was called to help write a speech president Clinton would present to the nation on national television while every single media outlet would cover the speech in one way or another. This would the best possible way to communicate the race problem Takaki saw. As he said that “we have the opportunity to redefine the ‘errand into the wilderness’–to write our own ending to Shakespeare’s play about America (435). (Takaki, 2008)” This implies that Takaki took the opportunity to act, when he received the call to help the president with his speech on race in the United States, and took matters into his own hand and is telling people to take action at the instant an opportunity is shown as he did in order to get people talking about problem that should be talked about more but aren’t like Human Trafficking. If what Takaki had done with president Clinton was done to the current president it would not only grab the attention of the nation, the United States, but would catch the attention of the world and would cause other world leaders, in a chain of events, to explicitly address Human trafficking.

There are other things that are present in Human Trafficking such as a coloration between race (Genealogical investigation should identify each race’s geographic origin) and the media coverage.  Human Trafficking is something that doesn’t affect one demographic in one certain race because Human traffickers don’t care much about the people or what race they are part of all they care about is how the people are turned into well honed tools  that usher high profits, and effect any and every one every where around the world. When it comes to finding new people to exploit they use mircoagressitons ( subtle or unintentional discrimination against members of a marginalized group) such as a man or a woman taken advantage of because of their race or economic status and are forced to menial labor and almost un-livable housing situation. Traffickers then approach them feeding on the microagressions they face and sweet talk them with false promises to lure them into a trap of exploitation. This problem catches media attention because of one reason no one is safe at any given time at any given place someone can be taken into or lured into the trafficking business and the chances of an Asian, White, Mexican, or Black man, woman, or child being taken into the Human trafficking business are all the same. Not just from the streets but through popular social media apps and websites where the traffickers pose as new friends or someone who cares and given this day and age where almost everyone with a phone has a Facebook, twitter, Instagram, or a Snapchat which allows people to hide behind a carefully constructed profile which is another reason different types of media talk about this subject but even with all of the media outlets covering this subject Human Trafficking is still growing.









11 Facts About Human Trafficking. (n.d.). Retrieved August 24, 2017, from

A. (2013, September 25). Social media heavily used in sex trafficking. Retrieved August 24, 2017, from

A. (n.d.). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved August 24, 2017, from

Alexandre, K., Sha, C., Pollock, J. C., Baier, K., & Johnson, J. (2014). Cross-National Coverage of Human Trafficking: A Community Structure Approach. Atlantic Journal Of Communication22(3/4), 160-174. doi:10.1080/15456870.2014.916289

D. (2015, April 10). How A Social Media Post Led A Teen Into Sex Trafficking. Retrieved August 24, 2017, from

Home Page. (n.d.). Retrieved August 24, 2017, from
Human Trafficking in Solomon Islands: Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions Report. (n.d.). Retrieved August 24, 2017, from


James, M. (2008, May 28). Race. Retrieved August 24, 2017, from

Pollock, J. C. (2014). Illuminating Human Rights: How Demographics Drive Media Coverage. Atlantic Journal Of Communication22(3/4), 141-159. doi:10.1080/15456870.2014.916292

Postman, N. (2007). Amusing ourselves to death: public discourse in the age of showbusiness. London: Methuen.

rlova, A. V. (2004). From Social Dislocation to Human Trafficking. Problems Of Post-Communism, 51(6), 14-22.

Social Media Sex Trafficking Recruitment. (2016, April 24). Retrieved August 24, 2017, from

Takaki, R. T. (2008). A different mirror: a history of multicultural America. New York: Back Bay Books/Little, Brown, and Co.

W. (2014, March 04). Potentially dangerous apps your teens use. Retrieved August 24, 2017, from

Gender: As it Relates to Human Trafficking


By: Madeline Rothrock

Black’s Law Dictionary has given gender the definition of being the defined difference between men and women based on culturally and socially constructed norms, politics, and affairs. The National Human Trafficking Hotline was a group our team utilized along with Unbound Seattle to deepen our understanding about the issue of human trafficking. The hotline is a great resource for the victims of trafficking as well as concerned community partners. Their hotline is open 24/7 for receiving tips, and for requesting services when needed. This hotline resource is especially helpful because at any one time they have translators available for over two hundred languages, allowing anyone in the world easy access to help.


Gender in human trafficking is often stereotyped between the two main categories. Sex trafficking is often only associated with females because that is what we are most exposed to. When this kind of trafficking is shown in the media, news articles, and other public places it is almost always shown with a male pimp and a female victim. Perpetuating this stereotype can be dangerous though, giving the public the idea that male victims are nonexistent and don’t need to be worried about. Another way boys often end up in trafficking is from runaway and homeless youth seeking shelter.



Our group resource was able to help us by giving us insight from her experiences with trafficking. One question I had that she was able to answer for me was why trafficking is so much more visible with females as opposed to males. While more females are found in specifically sex trafficking, men and boys are still being forced into trafficking but often don’t seek any help. Erin was able to explain that although males end up in sex trafficking they often don’t seek help for the fear of being perceived, or outed as gay. It can be very difficult for a sexually assaulted man to first admit to himself that he has been assaulted, and then seek assistance because of the gender roles society has placed upon him. There are also considerably less resources for boys compared to what is offered for female victims needing helppic4

When comparing gender equality, agency is used to describe an individual’s personhood and identity. In Postman the lack of agency is shown in the female news anchors being chosen solely based on their looks for their T.V. ratings, and not how good of a job they are able to do. Reducing a woman down to only her appearance robs her of her personhood and turns her into an object for use. While reading through Takaki gender was brought up multiple times being related to working and the gender roles women and men held at the time. Throughout WW1 and WW11 many job shortages occurred back in the U.S. while the men were away fighting. This left large amounts of labor and technology jobs wide open for women to fill, and for many it was their first time working in these fields because of gender norms at the time. Women were expected to stay home and raise the families, and the men went to work to become the bread winners.


Belinda, L. (2014). Inside the Scarily Lucrative Business Model of Human Trafficking. Time.
Greeve, A. (2014, September 18). Human trafficking: What about the men and boys? Retrieved August 22, 2017, from
National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC)(), NHTRC Student Toolkit. 1-12.
Postman, N. (2007). Amusing ourselves to death: public discourse in the age of showbusiness. London: Methuen.
Takaki, R. T., & Tomita, T. (1995). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Tōkyō: Akashi Shoten.

Human Trafficking and Ethnicity


Written by Luis Rodriguez

When reading Ronald Takaki’s, A different Mirror. It’s very clear that America is lacking in education of the impact people of color and religion have on the united states. Human Trafficking is also a subject that there is a lack of information. My group members in this project visited police stations in Bothell and Woodinville and could not find a person who specialized in Human Trafficking. In Washington state, the biggest area for Human Trafficking is Seattle, but there are many cities and towns that do not know that. There is a lack of information about Human Trafficking, our group made a step and received flyers to hand out to notify the injustice that Washington State is facing.

What is ethnicity? Well, you can’t really go into it without bringing in Race. Race is a problematic thing to use an indicator. People would rather be identified by their ethnicity or preferred the word ethnicity rather than race. Race has a lot of baggage and weight still today because of its history of it use by others. Race is looking at the appearance of someone, that’s where racial profile comes from and that’s where racism comes from. Ethnicity is a better thing to use because it looks at religion, heritage and cultural customs. As said in the previous blog post about Human Trafficking and Frame of Reference. Human Trafficking is modern-day slavery according to Homeland Security. Just like the word slavery having weight and history, ethnicity and race came into play. Today’s society, doesn’t look at ethnicity when it comes to Human Trafficking. According to a Kansas sex trafficking victim, “It’s an issue that cuts across class, race, and even gender. Both boys and girls are exploited in this way.” (Trafficking in persons report, 2017) But others argue with points that ethnicity does play into Human Trafficking.


In a global point of view, ethnicity does play a part in Human Trafficking. In Neil Postman’s Amusing, ourselves to death shows media as an epistemology. We get our information from the media in today’s media environment. In the film Taken, the film showcases two American girls getting taken by human traffickers. According to an article in the Huffington Post, “Most foreign nationals (victims) are women, children and men from Mexico and East Asia, as well as from South Asia, Central America, Africa, and Europe, about 17,500 each year, according to statistics compiled by Polaris Project.” (Ball, Huffington Post) Below are links to four videos, that discusses Labor and Sex Trafficking across the United States:

Human Traffickers are very observant and they usually have a strategy. What all of them have in common is that they spot people whom no one would be looking for them. Most people exposed to sex trafficking are in poverty and runaways. According to the Polaris Project, “1 in 6 endangered runaways reported to them were likely sex trafficking victims.” (Polaris Project, 2017) and they also stated that, “Vulnerable populations are frequently targeted by traffickers” (Polaris Project, 2017) When looking at labor trafficking though, it is far more hidden because most victims doesn’t realize they were victims until later. According to the Polaris Project, “31% of undocumented, Spanish-speaking migrant workers interviews in San Diego County had experienced labor trafficking.” (Polaris Project, 2017) Immigrant workers with different ethnic backgrounds are being targeted because of the fact they need to work and they came here to start a new life, so labor traffickers take advantage of them by forced labor.

When working with our community partner, Unbound in Seattle. I had asked if there were signs of a specific ethnic group targeted into human trafficking. And the response, I got wasn’t anything concrete at all. Like said before, Human Trafficking affects people and it transcends beyond race and ethnicity. Modern day slavery is different than slavery 100 years ago. In Takaki’s work in A different Mirror, he points out that slavery was, “psychologically complex and confusing” (Ronald Takaki, A different Mirror, 2008). Race was the leading factor in slavery over 150 years ago. According to the Polaris Project, “more research is needed on the scope of human trafficking” (Polaris Project, 2017) You can only assume that all people are victims of human trafficking no matter of ethnicity.


According to the Polaris Project, “In the United States, common types of labor trafficking include people forced to work in homes as domestic servants, farmworkers coerced through violence as they harvest crops, or factory workers held in inhumane conditions.” (Polaris Project, 2017) According to the Migration Policy Institute, “about 69 percent of Mexican immigrants (ages 16 and over) were in the civilian labor force… Mexican immigrants were much more likely to be employed in service occupations” (Jeanne Batalova, MPI, 2016) We do not have any research of any ethnicity numbers in Labor Trafficking, you can only assume that because 69% of Mexican Immigrants work in a labor force, that there could be victims out there. Labor Trafficking is much harder for victims to come forward because they are in a dilemma of needing a job. The Polaris project found that, “Labor trafficking has also been reported in door-to-door sales crews, restaurants, construction work, carnivals, and even health and beauty services.” (Polaris Project, 2017.)


Human Trafficking is a problem in the United States and people need to be educated about the problem. We need classes like Cultural Studies, to dive deep into the issue and come up with a solution. When navigating the Polaris Project page, there is a link to get people involved and support the cause to stop Human Trafficking. The links bellow will guide you to how you can help the cause.

National Human Trafficking Hotline 1 (888) 373-7888

Polaris BeFree Textline Text “BeFree” (233733)

Word Count: 967


Blue Campaign. (n.d.). Retrieved July 31, 2017,                                                                                     Retrieved from

Polaris. (n.d.). Retrieved August 19, 2017, from

Postman, N. (2007). Amusing ourselves to death: public discourse in the age of showbusiness.    London: Methuen.

Takaki, R. T., & Tomita, T. (1995). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America.        Tōkyō: Akashi Shoten.

WHAT IS TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS? (2017). Global Report on Trafficking in Persons Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2017, 17-20.                                                                                   Retrieved July 31, 2017,

Zong, J., & Batalova, J. (2016, March 17). Mexican Immigrants in the United States.                           Retrieved August 21, 2017, from, Education, and Employment